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Our modern day landscapes are littered with the remains of amazing ancient superstructures. But new, cutting edge archaeology is beginning to reveal that this century's most exciting discoveries will lie at the bottom of the ocean, where entire submerged cities and extraordinary structures are now beginning to be found. In this documentary of History channel, researchers using the latest tools of marine archaeology and sub-radar sensing technology, explore these enigmatic hidden superstructures of the deep.
- Read Later
The five: underwater discoveries
On 1 April, a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the US highlighted the significance of a recent expedition that made multiple finds in the depths of Lake Titicaca. Among gold medallions, precious shells and stone artefacts were the bones of sacrificed young llamas. The discovery provides new insights into the religious rituals of the pre-Columbian Tiwanaku state that dominated in the Andes region between AD500 and 900.
Giant, Previously Unknown Structure Discovered Deep Inside Earth
Researchers have detected a large, previously unknown structure&mdashconsisting of unusually dense, hot rock&mdashdeep inside the Earth below the Pacific Ocean.
The structure, known as an ultralow-velocity zone (ULVZ), is located on the boundary between Earth's superheated, molten core and the solid mantle, lying directly underneath the volcanic Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia in the South Pacific, according to a study published in the journal Science.
The international team from the University of Maryland (UMD), Johns Hopkins University and Tel Aviv University, Israel, also found evidence to suggest that a previously identified ULVZ beneath the Hawaiian Islands at the core-mantle boundary is much larger than previously thought.
ULVZs lie at the bottom of plumes within the Earth, geological features where hot rocky material is thought to rise from the core-mantle boundary to the planet's outer crust, leading to the creation of volcanic islands, such as Hawaii and the Marquesas. In fact, the ULVZ located beneath Hawaii is the largest example known to science.
"There is a theory that if you have a plume of rising hot rock&mdashwhich produces the hot spot volcanism at the surface that creates ocean island chains like Hawaii and Marquesas&mdashthat this rising rock will kind of suck on the melt and pull it up, so the ULVZ ends up being very large in areas where material is going up. However, there are others who think ULVZs just represent regions where mantle is very enriched in iron," Doyeon Kim, lead author of the study from UMD's Department of Geology, told Newsweek.
The scientists were able to detect the structures by analyzing data on seismic waves, which can reveal hidden, subterranean structures as they travel through the planet.
These seismic waves, which are generated by earthquakes, travel thousands of miles below the surface. But as the material that they pass through varies in density, temperature or composition, the waves change speed, bend or scatter, producing echoes that scientists can detect using instruments known as seismometers.
Using this data, researchers can put together a picture of the rock that lies below the surface and estimate its physical properties. In the latest study, the authors used a machine learning algorithm called "the Sequencer" to simultaneously analyze around 7,000 seismic wave recordings&mdashknown as seismograms&mdashgenerated by hundreds of 6.5-plus magnitude earthquakes that struck the Pacific region between 1990 and 2018.
These waves diffracted along the core-mantle boundary, providing a comprehensive view of the deep Earth below the Pacific region.
"Seismic waves travel up to 30 percent slower in ULVZs than through surrounding mantle materials. When seismic waves interact with ULVZs, some of the energy can bounce off, producing loud echoes," Kim said.
"By looking at thousands of core-mantle boundary echoes at once, instead of focusing on a few at a time, as is usually done, we have gotten a totally new perspective," Kim said in a statement. "This is showing us that the core-mantle boundary region has lots of structures that can produce these echoes, and that was something we didn't realize before because we only had a narrow view."
To their surprise, the researchers found that nearly half of the diffracted waves had been scattered by three-dimensional structures near the core-mantle boundary, casting new light on this region of the Earth underneath the Pacific. They found many structures previously identified, but also a new, ultra-low-velocity zone beneath the Marquesas Islands.
The scale of typical ULVZs found elsewhere are in the order of around 100 kilometers (62 miles) across. But what the team uncovered beneath the Marquesas Islands is an order of magnitude larger than those typical ULVZs&mdasha structure around 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) across. ULVZs of this extraordinary size are called " mega-ULVZs."
"What was known previous to our study is that there are three mega-ULVZs on Earth&mdash beneath Hawaii, Iceland, and Samoa. We observed loud echoes generated by mega-ULVZs whose properties are very different from the surrounding mantle: one beneath Hawaii which turned out to be much larger than previously thought and one beneath Marquesas which is one of the new discoveries we made," Kim told Newsweek.
"We were surprised to find such a big feature beneath the Marquesas Islands that we didn't even know existed before," Vedran Lekic, a co-author of the study from UMD, said in the statement. "This is really exciting, because it shows how the Sequencer algorithm can help us to contextualize seismogram data across the globe in a way we couldn't before."
In addition to the particularly loud echoes from below Hawaii and the Marquesas Islands, indicating the presence of large ULVZs, the team also detected weaker echoes that are widespread, observed from almost everywhere beneath the Pacific.
"We found echoes on about 40 percent of all seismic wave paths," Lekic said. "That was surprising because we were expecting them to be more rare, and what that means is the anomalous structures at the core-mantle boundary are much more widespread than previously thought."
The team say these weaker echoes must indicate more distributed structures, as opposed to localized structures, such as ULVZs.
"We think that the most likely&mdashbut not the only&mdashexplanation is that these widespread 'pervasive' echoes come from the boundaries of a continent-sized structure called an LLSVP (large low shear velocity province. However, in some locations, this cannot explain the signals, and they instead tell us about much smaller structures being present to produce the echoes, though we cannot precisely determine where," Kim said.
In the study, the scientists focused on echoes produced by a specific class of seismic waves known as shear waves. According to the United States Geological Survey, shear waves move the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction that the wave is moving.
When looking at just a single seismogram, it is difficult to distinguish echoes generated by diffracted shear waves from random noise. However, looking at many seismograms recorded simultaneously can provide valuable insights into the Earth's interior.
Despite the latest findings, scientists still know relatively little about the composition of ULVZs. However, studies like the latest paper could have implications for our understanding of geological processes, such as plate tectonics, as well as the evolution of our planet.
This article was updated to include additional comments from Doyeon Kim.
|Number of Episodes||Episode title||Present location||Original air date|
|1||Palenque: Metropolis of the Maya||Mexico||April 4, 2005|
|2||Knights Templar||Syria||July 10, 2006|
|3||Atlantis||Crete, Santorini||July 17, 2006|
|4||Ramses' Egyptian empire||Egypt||July 24, 2006|
|5||Athens - Ancient Supercity||Greece||July 31, 2006|
|6||Secret Cities of the A-Bomb||United States||August 7, 2006|
|7||Hitler's Supercity||Germany||August 14, 2006|
|8||Jesus' Jerusalem||Israel/Palestine||August 21, 2006|
|9||Churchill's Secret Bunkers||England||August 28, 2006|
|10||The Real Dracula||Romania||September 4, 2006|
|11||Braveheart's Scotland||Scotland||September 11, 2006|
|12||The First Christians||Greece, Italy, Turkey||September 18, 2006|
|13||The Pagans||England||September 25, 2006|
|14||Seven Wonders of the World||Egypt, Greece, Iraq, Turkey||August 1, 2007|
|15||Kama Sutra||India||August 8, 2007|
|16||Secret A-Bomb Factories||United States||August 15, 2007|
|17||Henry VIII's Mega Structures||England||August 22, 2007|
|18||Secret U.S. Bunkers||United States||August 29, 2007|
|19||Herod the Great||Israel/Palestine||September 5, 2007|
|20||Building the Titanic||Ireland||September 12, 2007|
|21||Sin City of the West||United States||September 19, 2007|
|22||The Vikings||Denmark, England, Iceland||September 26, 2007|
|23||Al Capone's Secret City||Chicago (United States)||October 3, 2007|
|24||Lost Superpower of the Bible||Turkey||October 10, 2007|
|25||Stalin's Supercity||Russia||October 17, 2007|
|26||City of Armageddon||Israel/Palestine||October 24, 2007|
|27||Jekyll & Hyde||Scotland||October 31, 2007|
|28||Age of Airships||Germany, United States||November 7, 2007|
|29||Ivan the Terrible's Fortress||Russia||November 14, 2007|
|30||Pirates of the Caribbean||Jamaica||November 21, 2007|
|31||Taj Mahal||India||November 28, 2007|
|32||Lost City of Aphrodisias||Turkey||December 5, 2007|
Each episode was made available on DVD on its original air date. The first 13 episodes were released as a 4-DVD box set on January 30, 2007. 
- ^"About the Series". history.com. The History Channel. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010 . Retrieved 12 June 2012 . A team of field investigators and engineering experts went out into the world in search of clues about these great feats of engineering, technology, and culture in order to bring them back to life with modern-day graphic technology.
- "About Lost Worlds" (video) . history.com. The History Channel . Retrieved 12 June 2012 . [permanent dead link]
- "Lost Worlds DVD Set". shop.history.com. The History Channel . Retrieved 12 June 2012 .
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Valley of ancient mega pyramids unearthed in EUROPE
The pyramids are the first of their kind discovered in Europe while the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun stands at more than 220 metres &ndash 73 metres taller than the Great Pyramid of Egypt.
He said: &ldquoFor thousands of years locals have considered those hills to be natural phenomenon because they were cover by one metre of soil and vegetation.&ldquoHowever, when I first saw their triangular faces, obvious corners and orientation toward the cardinal points, I knew that they had to be constructed by intelligent hands. &ldquoSince I had been investigating pyramids for decades I knew that the pyramids found in China, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras or El Salvador presented the same case of pyramids covered by dirt and vegetation.&rdquo Studies suggest the pyramids are covered in soil aged around 12-15,000 years old but fossilised leaves on top of the pyramids are around 34,000 years old &ndash making them the oldest known pyramids on the planet.
ELECTRIC: Dr Sam Osmanagich claims the Pyramid of the Sun emits electromagnetic beams
EUROPE: The pyramids are claimed to have been found in Visoko, Bosnia
&ldquoI knew that they had to be constructed by intelligent hands&rdquo
Dr Sam Osmanagich
Dr Osmanagich said a secret underground tunnel and chamber network &ndash running for more than 10 miles &ndash was also uncovered.
He said: &ldquoMega ceramic sculptures have been discovered in the underground labyrinth with a mass of several tonnes which make them the largest found so far in the ancient world.
&ldquoUnder every original old pyramid (Shaanxi in China, Giza and Saqqara in Egypt, Teotihuacan and Palenque in Mexico) underground tunnels were built as a part of construction. Same goes for the Bosnian Pyramids.
&ldquoA Network of tens of kilometers in pre-historic underground tunnels, intersections and chambers are located under the pyramid valley.
&ldquoOur scientific conference on Bosnian Pyramids held in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 have concluded that tunnel complex is pre-historical ingenious construction where electromagnetic fields with high concentration of negative ions have been present.&rdquo
LEADER: Dr Sam Osmanagich claims he discovered the pyramids
MAN MADE: Dr Sam Osmanagich claims the structures were man made
&ldquoOriginal pyramids (Giza, biggest Shaanxi in China, Teotihuacan, Bosnia) were used as huge energy machines: they were emitting electromagnetic fields, creating ultrasound and more energy phenomena.
&ldquoMost probably they were receivers, as well. Communications between the continents existed tens of thousands of years ago.&rdquo
But the archaeologist said there have been &ldquodifficulties&rdquo and &ldquoopponents&rdquo to the pyramids since he started exacting the site.&ldquoCultural establishment of Bosnia, but also Europe, the US and Egypt, have been doing everything to stop the excavation, writing petitions to Bosnian governments, trying to discredit us on internet sites&rdquo, Dr Osmangich added.&ldquoHowever, truth has been prevailing.
MYSTERY: Dr Osmanagich claims the Pyramid of the Sun is bigger than the Great Pyramid of Egypt
Deep history of coconuts decodedA chef wearing avocado sunscreen holds a sweet nui vai coconut. The photo was taken in the Masoala Peninsula of Madagascar by plant biologist Bee Gunn while she was collecting coconut leaf tissue for DNA analysis.The DNA of the Madagascar coconuts turned out to be particularly interesting, preserving, as it did, news of the arrival of ancient Austronesians at the island off Africa.
The coconut (the fruit of the palm Cocos nucifera) is the Swiss Army knife of the plant kingdom in one neat package it provides a high-calorie food, potable water, fiber that can be spun into rope, and a hard shell that can be turned into charcoal. What’s more, until it is needed for some other purpose, it serves as a handy flotation device.
No wonder people from ancient Austronesians to Captain Bligh pitched a few coconuts aboard before setting sail. (The mutiny of the Bounty is supposed to have been triggered by Bligh’s harsh punishment of the theft of coconuts from the ship’s store.)
So extensively is the history of the coconut interwoven with the history of people traveling that Kenneth M. Olsen, PhD, a plant evolutionary biologist at Washington University in St. Louis, didn’t expect to find much geographical structure to coconut genetics when he and his colleagues set out to examine the DNA of more than 1300 coconuts from all over the world.
“I thought it would be mostly a mish-mash,” Olsen says, thoroughly homogenized by humans schlepping coconuts with them on their travels.
He was in for a surprise. It turned out that there are two clearly differentiated populations of coconuts, a finding that strongly suggests the coconut was brought under cultivation in two separate locations, one in the Pacific basin and the other in the Indian Ocean basin. What’s more, coconut genetics also preserve a record of prehistoric trade routes and of the colonization of the Americas.
The discoveries of the team, which included Bee Gunn, now of the Australian National University in Australia, and Luc Baudouin of the Centre International de Recherches en Agronomie pour le Développement (CIRAD) in Montpellier, France, as well as Olsen, associate professor of biology in Arts & Sciences at WUSTL, are described in the June 23 online issue of the journal PLoS One.
Morphology a red herring
Before the DNA era, biologists recognized a domesticated plant by its morphology. In the case of grains, for example, one of the most important traits in domestication is the loss of shattering, or the tendency of seeds to break off the central grain stalk once mature.
The trouble was, it was hard to translate coconut morphology into a plausible evolutionary history.
A tall coconut with niu kafa fruit. The meat of these coconuts, called copra, is often dried, ground and pressed for oil, and their fiber is spun into rope, or coir.
There are two distinctively different forms of the coconut fruit, known as niu kafa and niu vai, Samoan names for traditional Polynesian varieties. The niu kafa form is triangular and oblong with a large fibrous husk. The niu vai form is rounded and contains abundant sweet coconut “water” when unripe.
Dwarf coconuts. Dwarfing suggests domestication, but only 5 percent of the world’s coconuts have the dwarf form.
“Quite often the niu vai fruit are brightly colored when they’re unripe, either bright green, or bright yellow. Sometimes they’re a beautiful gold with reddish tones,” Olsen says.
Coconuts also have been traditionally classified into tall and dwarf varieties based on the tree “habit,” or shape. Most coconuts are talls, but there are also dwarfs that are only several feet tall when they begin reproducing. The dwarfs account for only 5 percent of coconuts.
Dwarfs tend to be used for “eating fresh,” and the tall forms for coconut oil and for fiber.
“Almost all the dwarfs are self-fertilizing and those three traits — being dwarf, having the rounded sweet fruit and being self-pollinating — are thought to be the definitive domestication traits,” Olsen says.
“The traditional argument was that the niu kafa form was the wild, ancestral form that didn’t reflect human selection, in part because it was better adapted to ocean dispersal,” says Olsen. Dwarf trees with niu vai fruits were thought to be the domesticated form.Kenneth Olsen / A niu kafa fruit adrift on the ocean.
The trouble is it’s messier than that. “You almost always find coconuts near human habitations,” Olsen says, and “while the niu vai is an obvious domestication form, the niu kafa form is also heavily exploited for copra (the dried meat ground and pressed to make oil) and coir (fiber woven into rope).
The coconut in the grocery store is like a cherry pit without the fleshy part. What’s fleshy in the stone fruits like cherries is the fibrous husk of the coconut.
“The lack of universal domestication traits together with the long history of human interaction with coconuts, made it difficult to trace the coconut’s cultivation origins strictly by morphology,” Olsen says.
DNA was a different story.
Collecting coconut DNA
The project got started when Gunn, who had long been interested in palm evolution, and who was then at the Missouri Botanical Garden, contacted Olsen, who had the laboratory facilities needed to study palm DNA.
Together they won a National Geographic Society grant that allowed Gunn to collect coconut DNA in regions of the western Indian Ocean for which there were no data. She sent home in zip-lock bags snippets of leaf tissue from the center of the coconut tree’s crown to be analyzed.
“We had reason to suspect that coconuts from these regions — especially Madagascar and the Comoros Islands — might show evidence of ancient ‘gene flow’ events brought about by ancient Austronesians setting up migration routes and trade routes across the southern Indian Ocean,” Olsen says.
Bee Gunn/National Geographic Society
On the way to sample new leaf tissue from the crown a of coconut tree, an intrepid climber with a knife in his teeth grins at Bee Gunn.
Olsen’s lab genotyped 10 microsatellite regions in each palm sample. Microsatellites are regions of stuttering DNA where the same few nucleotide units are repeated many times. Mutations pop up and persist pretty easily in these regions because they usually don’t affect traits that are important to survival and so aren’t selected against, Olsen says. “So we can use these genetic markers to ‘fingerprint’ the coconut,” he says.
The new collections were combined with a vast dataset that had been established by CIRAD, a French agricultural research center, using the same genetic markers. “These data were being used for things like breeding, but no one had gone through and systematically examined the genetic variation in the context of the history of the plant,” Olsen says.
Two origins of cultivation
The most striking finding of the new DNA analysis is that the Pacific and Indian Ocean coconuts are quite distinct genetically. “About a third of the total genetic diversity can be partitioned between two groups that correspond to the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean,” Olsen says.
“That’s a very high level of differentiation within a single species and provides pretty conclusive evidence that there were two origins of cultivation of the coconut,” he says.
In the Pacific, coconuts likely were first cultivated on islands in Southeast Asia, meaning the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and perhaps the continent as well. In the Indian Ocean, the likely center of cultivation was the southern periphery of India, including Sri Lanka, the Maldives and the Laccadives.
The definitive domestication traits —the dwarf habit, self-pollination and niu vai fruits — arose only in the Pacific, however, and then only in a small subset of Pacific coconuts, which is why Olsen speaks of origins of cultivation rather than of domestication.
“At least we have it easier than scientists who study animal domestication,” he says. “So much of being a domesticated animal is being tame, and behavioral traits aren’t preserved in the archeological record.”
Did it float or was it carried?
One exception to the general Pacific/Indian Ocean split is the western Indian Ocean, specifically Madagascar and the Comoros Islands, where Gunn had collected the samples. The coconuts there are a genetic mixture of the Indian Ocean type and the Pacific type.
Olsen and his colleagues believe the Pacific coconuts were introduced to the Indian Ocean a couple of thousand years ago by ancient Austronesians establishing trade routes connecting Southeast Asia to Madagascar and coastal east Africa.
Olsen points out that no genetic admixture is found in the more northerly Seychelles, which fall outside the trade route. He adds that a recent study of rice varieties found in Madagascar shows there is a similar mixing of the japonica and indica rice varieties from Southeast Asia and India.
To add to the historical shiver, the descendants of the people who brought the coconuts and rice are still living in Madagascar. The present-day inhabitants of the Madagascar highlands are descendants of the ancient Austronesians, Olsen says.
The scientists were astonished by the amount of structure in the coconut DNA, enough structure to allow them to trace some of the coconuts travels with humans. For a full screen version of this chart, click here.
The Indian Ocean coconut was transported to the New World by Europeans much later. The Portuguese carried coconuts from the Indian Ocean to the West Coast of Africa, Olsen says, and the plantations established there were a source of material that made it into the Caribbean and also to coastal Brazil.
So the coconuts that you find today in Florida are largely the Indian ocean type, Olsen says, which is why they tend to have the niu kafa form.
On the Pacific side of the New World tropics, however, the coconuts are Pacific Ocean coconuts. Some appear to have been transported there in pre-Columbian times by ancient Austronesians moving east rather than west.
During the colonial period, the Spanish brought coconuts to the Pacific coast of Mexico from the Philippines, which was for a time governed on behalf of the King of Spain from Mexico.
This is why, Olsen says, you find Pacific type coconuts on the Pacific coast of Central America and Indian type coconuts on the Atlantic coast.
“The big surprise was that there was so much genetic differentiation clearly correlated with geography, even though humans have been moving coconut around for so long.”
Far from being a mish-mash, coconut DNA preserves a record of human cultivation, voyages of exploration, trade and colonization.
A Previously Unknown Civilization Has Been Found Deep Inside The Amazon
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Rapid deforestation in combination with Google Earth has allowed the detection of 210 geoglyphs in 200 different site sites, in a strip of 250 kilometers by 10 kilometers wide in the Amazon. Just like the Nazca lines, the incredible geometric, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic designs of the Amazon can only be truly appreciated from the air. The question remains, why?
Numerous remains of what is obviously part of an ancient and hitherto unknown civilization have appeared under the trees of the Amazon rainforest. According to researchers, 260 huge avenues, long irrigation canals, and fences for livestock have been spotted from the air. The discovery was made in the vicinity of the border between Bolivia and Brazil.
The ruins have been uncovered due to rapid deforestation, a process that is revealing what previously was hidden under deep layers of vegetation. The traditional idea many historians share is that before the arrival of Spanish and Portuguese in the fifteenth century, and unlike conventional history in the Andes, there weren’t any advanced civilizations in the Amazon region. But, given the fact how deforestation has revealed much of the hidden secrets of the area, scholars are confident that an advanced civilization inhabited the area in the distant past. The numerous aerial and satellite images are revealing, a complex network of towns, cities, roads, and structures that until now had remained hidden under the impenetrable layer of the Amazon.
So far, researchers have been aided by Google Earth which has allowed them to identify structures that are not visible from the ground. So far, numerous discoveries have been made, some of them are square or rectangular structures, while others form concentric circles or complex geometric figures as hexagons and octagons, all connected by a network of wide avenues.
Researchers found neat trenches or pits, that are between 1 and 4 meters deep, and upturned 11-12 meters wide. These are found in different sizes and designs: circles, squares, rectangles, compound shapes, straight and parallel lines. In addition, the figures are connected by what appear to be “roads”.
Although there is no evidence that the ancient inhabitants of the Amazon have built pyramids and developed a written language, as the ancient Egyptians did, they did show signs of great social complexity and an ability to tame the environment, something very different from what they do today, as the isolated tribes living in the Amazon today have a very different social agenda.
Thanks to excavation, researchers have unearthed pottery, carved stones and other elements that point towards signs of human habitation, although some of the sites did not yield any artifacts, researchers suggest that some of the archaeological sites might have had ceremonial functions while others might have been intended for defensive purposes.
The dominating features of geometry and the dimension of the geoglyphs reveals something fascinating about the ancient inhabitants of the region. Researchers thought that the ancient people, local to the area were only nomads, hunters and gatherers in the distant past, but the number of structures and their size point towards a complex society with tremendous capabilities in numerous fields. Researchers estimate that in some of the archaeological sites discovered so far, the population was around 70,000.
Researchers know very little about this Amazonian civilization, so far, thanks to the pottery discovered during excavations, researchers were able to place the civilization in history around 2000 years ago.
Speaking to the NYTimes, Denise Schaan, an archaeologist at the Federal University of Pará in Brazil who now leads research on the geoglyphs said radiocarbon testing indicated that they were built 1,000 to 2,000 years ago, and might have been rebuilt several times during that period.
“If one wants to recreate pre-Columbian Amazonia, most of the forest needs to be removed, with many people and a managed, highly productive landscape replacing it,” said William Woods, a geographer at the University of Kansas who is part of a team studying the Acre geoglyphs. “I know that this will not sit well with ardent environmentalists,” Mr. Woods said, “but what else can one say?”
You might be surprised that a future even greater change of weather is prophesied in the Bible . . . REAL EARTH WARMING!
Planet earth is rapidly approaching a terrible time of suffering and world-wide devastation known as the Tribulation . . . seven years of purging and judgment is coming upon the unbelieving world. Revelation 16:8-9 tells us that part of the judgment coming upon mankind is a time of severe earth warming — “And the fourth angel poured out his bowl upon the SUN, and power was given unto him to SCORCH MEN WITH FIRE. And men were scorched with GREAT HEAT, and blasphemed the Name of God, who hath power over these plagues and they repented not to give Him glory.”
Apparently, during the last half of the seven years of Tribulation, the sun will experience what scientists call a supernova . . . a great increase of heat, radiation, and light. Explosions on the supernova stars greatly increases the heat and brilliance and release of harmful radiation. Mega solar flares have been observed in other stars in the galaxy . . . and afterwards the stars greatly diminish in their intensity. Perhaps this decrease of heat and light from the sun is the reason we read that after the sun erupts it will no longer be necessary when Jesus comes in power and great glory and abides with His people on planet earth and in the New Jerusalem — “And there shall be no night there and they need no lamp, neither light of the sun for the Lord God giveth them light, and they shall reign forever and ever.” Revelation 22:5The day is coming when earth will no longer be dependent upon the sun for either light or heat.
If you have believed in the Lord Jesus Christ and received Him as Savior and Lord, you have no need to fear the future . . . after all . . . He is the way, the truth, and the life . . . He is our hope for now and the future! If you are not certain of your eternal future, we would encourage you to read the illustrated booklets below. GOT QUESTIONS about your eternal destination? Email editor Chuck Anderson.