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Ancient Korea

Ancient Korea


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Detailed​ ​lesson​ ​plan​ ​on ancient Korea, divided​ ​into​ ​three​ ​units​ with varied​ ​materials,​ ​sources,​ ​and​ ​ready-to-print​ ​activities. Homework, assessment and all keys included.

Table of Contents

  • Unit ​1:​ The ​Thre ​Kingdom ​Period (The​ ​Kingdom​ ​of​ ​Baekje, The​ ​Kingdom​ ​of​ ​Goguryeo, Kingdom​ ​of​ ​Silla )
  • Unit​ ​2:​ ​Unified​ ​Kingdom​ ​of​ ​Silla
  • Unit​ ​3:​ ​Historical​ Negationism

Materials​ Provided

  • Background​ ​information​ ​for​ ​ ​teachers;​
  • Article,​ ​maps​ ​and​ ​a​ ​timeline​ ​from​ ​Ancient​ ​History​ ​Encyclopedia
  • Videos​
  • All​ ​of​ ​the​ ​worksheets​ ​used​ ​in​ ​this​ ​course​ ​plan​ ​can​ ​be​ ​found​ ​in​ ​this​ ​document, ready​ ​to​ ​print.

This content was made possible with generous support from the British Korean Society.


Buyeo

Buyeo, Puyŏ or Fuyu/Fuyo (Korean: 부여 Hanja: 夫餘 Korean pronunciation: [pu.jʌ] Chinese: 夫餘 pinyin: Fūyú Japanese: 扶余 Fuyo), was an ancient multi-ethnic Korean kingdom centred around the middle of Manchuria in modern-day north-east China.

According to the Book of the Later Han, Buyeo was under the jurisdiction of Xuantu Commandery, one of Four Commanderies of Han in the later Western Han. Buyeo entered into formal diplomatic relations with the Eastern Han dynasty by the mid-1st century AD as an important ally of that empire to check the Xianbei and Goguryeo threats. Buyeo was then reclassified as part of Liaodong Commandery of the Eastern Han. After an incapacitating Xianbei invasion in 285, Buyeo was restored with help from the Jin dynasty. This, however, marked the beginning of a period of decline. A second Xianbei invasion in 346 finally destroyed the state, except some remnants in its core region which survived as vassals of Goguryeo until their final annexation in 494.

According to the Records of the Three Kingdoms, the Buyeo language was similar to those of its southern neighbours Goguryeo and Ye, and the language of Okjeo was only slightly different from them. [1] Both Goguryeo and Baekje, two of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, considered themselves Buyeo's successors.


Gwangmu Emperor Gojong, Founder of the Korean Empire

In 1897, King Gojong, the 26th ruler of Korea's Joseon Dynasty, announced the creation of the Korean Empire, which lasted only 13 years under the shadow of Japanese control. He died in 1919.


An Aspect of the History of Medicine in Ancient Korea as Examined through Silla Buddhist Monks'Annotations on the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease"in the Sutra of Golden Light (Suvarnabhāsa-sūtra)

Nearly nothing is known of medicine in ancient Korea due to insufficient materials. With several extant prescriptions and esoteric methods of treating diseases alone, it is impossible to gauge in depth the management of medicine during this period. If one exception were to be cited, that would be the fact that the annotations for understanding the contents on Indian medicine in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light, a Buddhist sutra originating from India, reflected the medical knowledge of Buddhist monks from Silla (57 BC-935 AD) who were active immediately after the nation's unification of the two other kingdoms on the Korean Peninsula (668 AD) such as Wonhyo (617-686 AD), Gyeongheung (620?-700? AD), and Seungjang (684-? AD). Along with those by other monks, these annotations are collected in the Mysterious Pivot of the Sutra of Golden Light, which was compiled by Gangyō(835-871 AD), a Japanese monk from the Heian era (794-1185 AD). Representative versions of the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light include: a classical Chinese translation by the Indian monk Dharmakṣema (385-433 AD) the eight-volume edition by Chinese monk Baogui, which differs little from the preceding work in terms of the contents of the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" and the ten-volume edition by Yijing (635-713 AD), who had full-fledged knowledge of Indian medicine. When the contents of the annotations thus collected are examined, it seems that Wonhyo had not been aware of the existence of the ten-volume edition, and Gyeongheung and Seungjang most certainly used the ten-volume edition in their annotations as well. Especially noteworthy are Wonhyo's annotations on the Indian medical knowledge found in the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" in the Sutra of Golden Light. Here, he made a bold attempt to link and understand consistently even discussions on Indian and Buddhist medicine on the basis of the traditional East Asian medical theory centering on the yin-yang and five phases (wuxing). In accordance with East Asia's theory of the seasonal five phases, Wonhyo sought to explain aspects of Indian medicine, e.g., changes in the four great elements (catvāri mahā-bhūtāni) of earth, water, fire, and wind according to seasonal factors and their effect on the internal organs patterns of diseases such as wind (vāta)-induced disease, bile (pitta)-induced disease, phlegm (śleṣman)-induced disease, and a combination (saṃnipāta) of these three types of diseases pathogenesis due to the indigestion of food, as pathological mechanisms centering on the theory of the mutual overcoming (xiangke) of the five phases including the five viscera (wuzang), five flavors (wuwei), and five colors (wuse). They existed in the text contents on Indian medicine, which could not be explicated well with the existing medical knowledge based on the theory of the five phases. Consequently, he boldly modified the theory of the five phases in his own way for such passages, thus attempting a reconciliation, or harmonization of disputes (hwajaeng), of the two medical systems. Such an attempt was even bolder than those by earlier annotators, and Wonhyo's annotations came to be accepted by later annotators as one persuasive explanation as well. In the case of Gyeongheung and Seungjang, who obtained and examined the ten-volume edition, a new classical Chinese translation produced following Wonhyo's death, annotated the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" based on their outstanding proficiency in Sanskrit and knowledge of new Indian and Buddhist medicine. This fact signifies that knowledge of the eight arts of Ayurvedic medicine in India was introduced into Silla around the early 8th century. The medical knowledge of Wonhyo, Gyeongheung, and Seungjang demonstrates that intellectual circles in contemporary Silla were arenas in which not only traditional East Asian medicine as represented by works such as the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor (Huangdi Neijing) but also Indian medicine of Buddhism coexisted in almost real time.

Keywords: Chapter on Eliminating Disease Gyeongheung Seungjang Sutra of Golden Light Wonhyo medicine in Shilla dynasty traditional Korean medicine.


Ancient Korea - History

From the first period of mankind the Korean nation has continuously lived on this land. They developed into an "old type of Korean man" and modern Korean man through primitive, Paleolithic, Neolithic Men in the course of evolution process.

The primitive remains excavated in Korea such as Komunmoru Remains in Sangwon County, Pyongyang, Taehyon-dong Remains in Ryokpho District, Pyongyang and Sungrisan Remains in Tokchon City, South Phyongan Province mean the primitive man (Komunmoru Remains) developed into a Palaeolithic Man ("Ryokpho Man") and Neolithic Man ("Sungrisan Man"). Especially Pyongyang area is endowed with remains and relics representing different periods of primitive society including the fossils of mankind showing the successive stage of evolution.

These prove that Korean people originated and developed around Pyongyang. They produced wealth through the creative activities to reform the nature and society and advanced the society step by step via the period of primitive community, matriarchal clan society, consanguinean clan society to a class society.

Ancient Kingdoms

Kojoson is the first slave-owning state in the Korean history. Tangun, founder of the state established it early in the 30th century BC. It existed till 108 BC in vast areas, of Northeast Asia around Pyongyang. The capital was Pyongyang. Kojoson was the powerful kingdom wide-known to neighboring countries with its integral ruling system and developed economy. It had a statute "8 Provisions of Violating of Bans", three provisions of which have been transmitted up to now.

Developed from early period of its establishment were agriculture (rice, foxtail millet, barley, Indian millet, bean and etc.), stock-farming, handicraft (especially the pipha-shaped dagger, narrow brass dagger, bronze mirror with small striped patterns and etc.) and foreign trade. They used ironware before the 12th century BC, and further produced and used carbon tool steel through dry metallurgical process by the 7th century BC.

Puyo Puyo was one of the duchies of Ancient Korea, but in the 15th century or so it became free from Ancient Korea. Its capital was Yesong (Jilin region today). Agriculture (Indian millet, foxtail millet, bean, millet and barley), stock-farming and handicraft (pipha-shaped dagger, narrow brass dagger and etc.) were developed in the country. By the spread of iron extracting technology around the 5th century BC, iron culture was developed.

However, the socio-class contradiction became acute from the 3rd century BC and the national power was on the decline, thus it was ruined in 219 BC by Koguryo, newly emerged powerful kingdom.

Kuryo was one of the duchies of Ancient Korea, but became free around the mid-15th century. Its capital was Jolbon (Hwanin area, Liaoning, China today). Developed in the country were agriculture and handicraft (especially bronze ware and ironware). At the early 3rd century BC Ko Ju Mong seized Kwarubu, one of the five administrative districts and established Koguryo, thus the country was ruined.

Jinguk was one of the ancient states existed in the southern part. It is separated from Ancient Korea and became an independent slave-owning kingdom before the 12th century BC. Its capital was Woljiguk (Jiksan region, South Chungchong Province today) and later moved to Kumma (Iksan region, South Jolla Province today).

Developed in Jinguk were agriculture (rice, wheat, barley, bean, foxtail millet), handicraft (especially ironware, bronze ware and silk), commerce, foreign trade and so on. Jinguk people who created developed economy and culture sailed across the Japanese archipelago to disseminate the advanced culture and made a great contribution to the development of Japan's ancient culture.

It began to collapse early in the 3rd century BC and minor countries like Paekje Minor State in Mahan region, Saro Minor State in Jinhan region and Kaya Feudal State in Pyonhan region. But later early in the first century the minor countries were incorporated with Pakeje, thus it brought ruin of Jinguk.

Feudal States

Koguryo was the first feudal state founded by King Tongmyong (Ko Ju Mong) in 277 BC. Its first capital was Jolbon but later moved to Jian, China and Pyongyang in 427. Koguryo was the most powerful state in the Korean history. It had developed economy and culture which was in the van of the three kingdoms and played the key role.

Its science and culture were considerably developed, in particular, astronomy and fine arts including drawing, handicraft and sculpture. It had its independent astronomical chart at the end of 5th century to the early 6th century and mural paintings in the underground preserve their vivid colours and the art of drawing. It prospered for nearly a millennium and was ruined in 668.

As one of the feudal states established at the end of the first century BC among the minor countries in Paekje area with the acceleration of feudalization. The capital was Hansong (Kwangju, Kyonggi Province today), but moved to Ungjin (Kongju, South Chungchong Province today) and Sabi (Puyo, South Chungchong Province today) in 538.

Pakje had developed agriculture (rice, barley, bean and etc), handicraft (metallurgy and metal processing) transport and foreign trade. The metal processed goods including gold crown, gold earrings, gold bracelets and the "Sword of Paekje with 3 blades at each side" show metal processing of it were in high level. Science of several fields like astronomy, geography and medical science were also developed as well as literature and fine art.

Its science and technology gave a considerable influence to Japan. Its technologists helped building of varieties of temples including the Temple of Four Devas, Horyuji Temple, Pophung Temple, Popgi Temple and Paekje Temple. It was ruined in the mid-7th century by Silla conspired with Tang dynasty.

Silla existed from early or mid-first century BC to 935. Its capital was Kyongju. Silla existed in the period of Three Kingdoms were called Former Silla (Early or mid-first century-mid -7th century) and Silla appeared later called as Later Silla (mid-7th century-935).

It had developed agriculture and handicraft. Especially it was in high level of gold and silver work. For example, the well-known gold crown excavated from the Silla Tomb of gold crown proves the fact. Casting technique was also developed. The Buddhist Saint of Hwangnyong Temple was cast in copper (more than 210 000 kg) and plated with gold at one heat in 574.

Meteorology, astronomy, architecture and other science and technology were also developed. Astronomical observatory built in the first half of 7th century in Kyongju has been world-famous and a long-lasting precious cultural legacy of the nation among the remaining observatory remains. 9-story pagoda of Hwangnyong Temple, Tabo Pagoda of Bulguk Temple and Shakyamuni Pagoda are evidencing the developments of architectural technique during the Silla dynasty.

A peasant war was swept over the nation at the end of 9th century. In this turmoil, the schemers established Later Paekje and Thaebong State. Thus, three kingdoms existed in Later Silla. This period is called the period of Later Three Kingdoms in the Korean history.

King Kyongsun, last king of Later Silla personally went to Koryo with the royal family to surrender to it, and this led to the downfall of Silla.

Palhae inherited Koguryo. It has existed from 698 to 926. It took a vast land and enjoyed a state power, and it developed the economy and culture while displaying the wisdom and dignity of the nation. Its capital was Tongmosan (Wudongcheng in Dunha).

Agriculture (foxtail millet, barley, bean and sorghum), hunting, livestock husbandry, fishing, handicraft (hemp, silk and porcelain), commerce and foreign trade were developed. Palhae which inherited the culture of preceded Koguryo developed mathematics, astronomy, calendar science and other sciences. It can be proved from the fact that 0 Hyo Sin, scholar of Palhae went over to Japan in 859 to deliver an astronomical calendar called Sonmyongryok and taught how to use.

It ended its existence in 926 due to the aggression by the Kitan who took an advantage of the weak state power caused by the internal conflicts and corruption within the rulers from the beginning of the 10th century.

Koryo was a feudal state which existed from 918 to 1392, founded by Wanggon. Its capital was Kaesong. As soon as Palhae was collapsed, Koryo inherited a unified policy of Koguryo, winning the ruined people over to its side. On the other hand, it has merged Later Silla in 935 and Later Paekje in 936, thus it achieved its cause to unify the land. So there appeared the first unified state in the Korean history.

Its culture was much more superior compared with other cultures. People in Koryo advanced publishing by inventing metallic types. Its fame was displayed with the Koryo Celadon treasured by the world people for its peculiar color, pattern and shape, shipbuilding and invention of gunpowder and its weapons.

Koryo with developed economy, culture, science and technology has been come down as Corea. Koryo saw its end in 1392 by Ri Song Gye and his followers who, with an ambition for power, staged a coup d'etat to overthrow the king.

Ri dynasty ruled Korea from 1392 to 1910. It was the last feudal state in the Korean peninsula. Korea was known as Joson by then. However, to differentiate it from either the Kojoson or modern Korea, it is commonly referred to as Ri dynasty or Korea under Ri's rule--named after the royal family.

Korean people, during the Ri dynasty, made their country known all over the world by inventing rain gauge made of iron, creating Hunminjongum, the Korean alphabet and building Kobukson, the world-first armored battleship and thus greatly contributed to the development of science and technology of the mankind.

The Japanese imperialists colonized Korea by cooking up the unlawful "Five Point Korea-Japan Treaty" in November 1905, and subsequently fabricated the "Korea-Japan Annexation Treaty" in 1910. Koreans were thus deprived of their country


An Introduction to Korean History

In ancient history, the Korean Peninsula was divided into three kingdoms, the Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla. These were unified by the Silla kingdom in the late seventh century. The Silla became the first of three royal dynasties in Korean history, later followed by the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties. The following lessons explore the historical unification of Korea, as well key figures, events, and beliefs that have helped to shape Korean history.

  • Korean History – The Basics: A basic overview of ancient Korean history through the end of the Joseon period, including distinct cultural contributions from each of the the three Korean dynasties.
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    THIS UNIT WAS MADE POSSIBLE THROUGH A GENEROUS GRANT FROM THE KOREA SOCIETY AND THE FOREIGN POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE.

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    Dangun as a God and Inspiration in Martial Arts

    Dangun’s influence can still be felt today. For those who follow Korean shamanism, for instance, Dangun is venerated as a god. A number of movements focusing on the worship of Dangun have also been founded over time. This traditional belief system, however, is said to be practiced by a minority of Koreans.

    Another influence of Dangun can be seen in the well-known Korean martial art known as Taekwondo. The second pattern in the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF) form is named after this legendary figure, and its moves are said to represent the connection between Dangun, Heaven, and the mountain where he became an immortal.

    Finally, October 3rd is known as ‘National Foundation Day’, and is a public holiday in South Korea, as it is believed that this was the day when Gojoseon was founded by Dangun in 2333 BC.

    Featured image: A modern religious painting shows the Founding-King in similar motifs. Photo source: San-Shin.


    Gyeongbokgung Palace

    Built in 1395, it is located in modern Seoul, South Korea. The largest of the Five Grand Palaces built by the Joseon dynasty, Gyeongbokgung served as the home of Kings of the Joseon dynasty, the Kings’ households, as well as the government of Joseon.

    Gyeongbokgung Palace. (Seoul, South Korea, 2015.)

    Gyeongbokgung continued to serve as the main palace of the Joseon dynasty until the premises were destroyed by fire during the Imjin War and abandoned for two centuries. However in the 19th century, all of the palace’s 7,700 rooms were restored.

    Traditionally clad guards at the Gyeongbokgung Palace stand in stark contrast to the modern skyline of Seoul. (Seoul, South Korea, 2015.)


    Contemporary South Korean fashion and makeup (sometimes referred to as K-Fashion or K-Style), has become immensely popular both within and outside of the home country in recent years. With the growing popularity of Korean pop music (K-Pop) and Korean dramas (K-dramas), Korean fashion and beauty has been readily consumed by young people worldwide, partly thanks to the rise of beauty bloggers and vloggers, other social media platforms, and the successful all-encompassing K-Pop festivals.

    The South Korean fashion of today began in the late 1800s with an intertwining of western influences. Before that point, during the Joseon period (1392-1897), the Korean hanbok was the typical fashion choice. Hanboks consisted of a blouse and loose-fitting pants or skirt. For women, they wore a jeongi (blouse or jacket) and a chima (skirt) and men wore jeongi and baji (pants). Hanboks were everyday wear with lavish versions worn by the elite. During this period, makeup was made from natural materials and traditionally simple. However, by the late 1800s with the arrival of westerners and Japanese influence, Korean fashion and makeup began to lose its traditional style and elements.

    Members of a wealthy Korean family posing for a photo wearing traditional hanbok. c. 1910-1920.

    Courtesy of Library of Congress Prints and Photos, Frank and Francis Carpenter Collection.

    In the early 20 th century, Koreans started to adopt western fashion powered by the Japanese occupation of Korea (1910-1945) where the Japanese colonial government promoted modernisation. This style evolution consisted of the cutting of traditional top-knots, men wearing suits, and women sporting new hairstyles, such as the ’Gibson Girl’. The ‘flapper’ style of the West also came into fashion during the 1920s, which gave young women who adopted the style the label of ‘new woman.’ Changes to fashion came along with changes in social and work lifestyles, with the emergence of new jobs for women such as phone operators and factory workers, and new emphasis on high literacy rates for the population.

    Vogue Korea magazine cover of woman modeling dress at fashion show. c. 1910-1945 Courtesy of Vogue Korea.

    During the Second World War, fashion took on a more militaristic-style that continued through the end of the war, the Korean liberation from Japan, and into the Korean War. Poverty and shortages in fabrics required clothing to be made simple and often in dark colours. Hanboks continued being worn by this time, mainly by women. Makeup, if worn, was kept light, almost natural.

    After the Korean War, the contemporary movement on fashion gained momentum in the 1950s with newer hairstyles like crimped hair, popularity of the swimsuit, and brighter makeup options influenced by the United States. The modern fashion industry was also born. In December 1954, the International Western Clothing Company opened in Seoul, providing the first fashion education in South Korea. Markets dedicated to fashion, such as Seoul’s Namdaemun Market and Dongdaemun Market, thrived and produced their own clothing. November 1955, women’s magazine Yeowon offered a new column: ‘Fashion Mode’. In 1957, Korea’s first fashion show showcased a collection by Nora Noh, Korea’s first fashion designer, that also heralded fashion designing as a new career.

    Poster of the movie Nora Noh. October 2013. Courtesy of Jihye Yu at International Foundation of Women Artists.

    Continuing with an upward momentum, the 1960s marked a new wave of fashion—hello, miniskirts—and makeup. On one side, western musicians, like the Beatles, served as major influencers on Korean fashion. On the other side, the government promoted the use of practical natural materials, like wool, and focused on being economical, with its ban of the importation and sale of other countries’ products thus, launching the Korean makeup industry. The industry also saw Korea’s first fashion magazine, Uisang, and the establishment of the first professional modeling school in 1964.

    By the 1970s, a shift in the way fashion trends developed occurred when the average consumer became the new trendsetter and catalyst for fashion rather than designers. Urban modernisation pushed the development of off-the-rack clothing brands, brand-focused stores, and department stores offering new and accessible distribution channels.

    Korea, at this time led by president Park Chung Hee, set a harsh and conservative environment. For the youth, fashion became a symbol of resistance and protest: hot pants, miniskirts, long hair, and the rise of punk clothing, with bold accessories such as big hoop earrings and sunglasses. Hemlines for women also became shorter.

    Woman getting her skirt measured. c. 1970s. Courtesy of Korea Daily.

    The 1980s witnessed another youth-led fashion movement with casual wear. T-shirts, jumpers, and blue jeans became the typical fashion, along with western brands like Reebok. Meanwhile, women work-wear fashion got a boost from their increased presence in the workforce. Makeup styles offered bright colours with emphasis on eyeshadows and blush.

    Enter Korean Pop (K-Pop) in the 1990s to put its indelible stamp on K-Fashion and K-Beauty culture. The first K-Pop group, Seo Tae-ji and Boys led this era of Korean fashion with their rap and hip-hop style, a new music trend at the time. Other western music and fashion style mixes such as grunge were adopted by the youth named ‘resistance fashion’. Korean fashion designers were getting international recognition with Lee Cinu as the first to showcase in Paris.

    Not far behind, the makeup industry grew with the emergence of new products such as BB creams, skin lightening lotions, and skin tightening creams. The simple applications and selection diverged from western makeup trends. K-Pop celebrities, the new icons of beauty, influenced the culture of body and skin/appearance consciousness. Full covering foundations, simple eye makeup, and pastel/natural-looking colours has become the makeup style of today. Korean men have also become involved with makeup trends often wearing foundation or BB cream.

    Since 2000 to the present, K-Fashion and K-Beauty products and culture continue to have an impact on the global market. Armed with smartphones and internet accessibility, the domestic and global consumer has access to Korean fashion and beauty products that show no signs of retreat in the competitive market. According to statista.com, ‘revenue in the Skin Care segment amounts to £3,387m in 2018. The market is expected to grow annually by 0.7%.’ The United States is also one of the biggest international consumers of K-Beauty.

    Young women at Seoul Fashion Week 2016. 2016 Courtesy of Joanna Garner at Glamour Lifestyles.

    Online clothing stores and importation of name-brand items, along with the emergence of many indie designers, have pushed K-Fashion to the level that it is at today. Seoul is now competing with western fashion cities such as Paris and New York. It will be interesting to see where Korean fashion and makeup will go from here.

    “Members of a wealthy Korean family posing for a photo wearing traditional hanbok. c. 1910-1920” Library of Congress Prints and Photos, Frank and Francis Carpenter Collection


    Ancient Korea - History

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    Kaya, also called Karak, Japanese Mimana, tribal league that was formed sometime before the 3rd century ad in the area west of the Naktong River in southern Korea. The traditional date for the founding of the confederation is given as ad 42, but this is considered to be highly unreliable. The confederation was sometimes known as Karak after its largest single unit.

    Because the area was isolated from the rest of the peninsula by Mount Chii in the west and Mount Kaya in the north, the Kaya confederation developed trade largely by sea with the Chinese capital at Lo-yang and with Wae (Japan). The people of Kaya are thought to have been closely related to the tribes that crossed over from Korea to Japan a century or two before this period, and Kaya frequently sought aid from the Japanese in its feuds with its larger Korean neighbours.

    Archaeological finds suggest that Kaya developed a culture not much behind that of the neighbouring Silla kingdom. Various earthenwares with patterns quite different from those of Silla have been excavated from the region. The Kaya people invented a unique musical instrument, the kayagum, and produced a well-known player named U Ruk.

    Because of its unfavourable conditions—it was surrounded on the Korean peninsula by the two greater powers of Silla and Paekche—the political and social development of Kaya was arrested, and it did not mature into a centralized kingdom. Silla subjugated the eastern half of the kingdom in 532 and the western half in 562.


    Words in This Story

    peninsula n. a piece of land surrounded by water on most sides and connected to a larger piece of land

    atrocity – n. a very cruel or terrible act or action usually involving death

    deliverv. to take something to a person or place to do what you say

    elderly – n. older adults

    negative – adj. showing refusal or denial

    commit – v. to carry out to promise

    reconciliation – n. the act of causing two people or groups to become friendly again after an argument or disagreement


    Watch the video: Altes Kraftwerk Töging geht vom Netz- Neues Kraftwerk für mehr Strom. Abendschau. BR24 (June 2022).


Comments:

  1. Noreis

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  2. Elijah

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